Floods in Tokyo and Safety Tips and Preparation

Poste date: Friday, February 28, 2020

Japan, located in the eastern end of Monsoon Asia, one of the world's rainy regions, has an average annual rainfall of 1718 mm, which is about twice the global average (880 mm).

Moreover, the precipitation in Japan fluctuates greatly from season to season, and is concentrated in the rainy season and typhoon season. For example, the monthly average rainfall in Tokyo is 208.5 mm in September, which is the heaviest rainy month, and 39.6 mm in December, which is the least rainy month of a year.

Rainfall Intensity and Definitions of Terms

Precipitation Intensity
(in an hour)

Forecast Terms

Situation
10 - 20mm Moderate to Heavy Rain
(やや強い雨 -
Yaya tsuyoi ame)
Rainfall of the amount enough to create puddles on the ground. If it lasts for a long time, stay alert for possible flooding.
20 - 30mm Heavy Rain
(強い雨 -
Tsuyoi ame)
Pouring rain to the extent that holding up an umbrella is not helping to protect yourself from rain. Gutters, sewage systems and small rivers will be flooded, while minor landslides occur.
30 - 50mm

Very Heavy Rain
(激しい雨 -
Hageshii ame)

Bucketing down of rain. The road becomes like a river, and the cliff collapse easily occurs.
50 - 80mm Extreme Rain
(非常に激しい雨 -
Hijôni hageshii ame)
Downpour like a waterfall. Severe rain that turns surrounding air white and makes it difficult to see clearly. There is a possibility that the water can pour into underground shopping centers.
80mm and more Torrential Rain
(猛烈な雨 -
Môretsuna ame)
Heavy downpour that makes the air stifling. Strict vigilance is required as it can result in a catastrophic disaster

Reference from Taito City Flood Hazard Map

Image from Taito City Flood Hazard Map

Localized Heavy Rainfall - Guerrilla Rainstorms

Localized heavy rainfall is called "Guerrilla Rainstorms (ゲリラ豪雨 - Gerira-Gôu)" in Japan. It's a localized downpour of short time.

Guerrilla Rainstorms have been increasing in Tokyo in these years. This type of rain is unexpectedly strong and is also very difficult to predict exactly where it occurs. Sewers and small rivers may overflow and it can cause serious damage.

Japanese rivers flow higher than residential area

In Japan, a lot of land where people live is lower than the river level at the time of the flood. High embankments are built along the river however, if these embankments break down, they would immediately cause enormous damage to people.

River level in Tokyo (Edogawa / Arakawa / Sumidagawa Rivers)

Image translated from "Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism"

River level in London

Image translated from "Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism"

River level in Paris

Image translated from "Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism"

River level in New York

Image translated from "Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism"

Major Rivers in Tokyo and Flood Risk

There are several rivers in Tokyo such as Edogawa, Nakagawa, Arakawa, Kandagawa, Megurogawa and Tamagawa.

According to Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan, the flood inundation areas (in maximum assumed scale) are as indicated in the image (click to enlarge). These are areas where river flooding is expected.

Note: Flooding of tributaries, rainfall exceeding the scale which is the premise of the simulation, flooding due to storm surge and inland water, etc are not calculated in this simulation. Inundation may occur in other areas and the predicted depth may differ from the actual depth.

Koto 5 wards (Sumida-ku, Koto-ku, Adachi-ku, Katsushika-ku and Edogawa-ku) located in the east area in Tokyo are known to be at risk of being flooded by large-scale floods however, other areas in west side of Tokyo are also at risk of flooding as you can see in the simulation.

In fact, due to the Typhoon 19th in 2019, the Tama River was partially flooded around Futakotamagawa (Setagaya-ku), and rainwater and other water flowed back from the manhole in Musashikosugi (Kawasaki City), flooding the area. These are in the west area in Tokyo.

What is Inland Flooding?

Apart from River Flooding and Coastal Flooding, there is another flooding called Inland Flooding. It's caused by heavy rain in a city and it overflows on the ground surface.

When heavy rain falls, it will not be able to to drain the water just by gutters, sewers and drains. Also, if the water level of the main river rises in the area where tributaries join together, the main river water can flow back to the small and medium-sized rivers (tributaries).

The amount of damage caused by Inland Flooding in Japan is about 50% in total floods (river flooding, coastal flooding and inland flooding) however, about 80% of floods in Tokyo are caused by inland floods. In urban areas where embankments are well developed, inland flooding has become a new issue.

Inland Flooding occurred by the Typhoon 19th in 2019 and caused damage around Musashikosugi Station. The increased water of the Tama River flowed back through the sewer and overflowed into the city.

The Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel

首都圏外郭放水路

The Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel is the world's largest underground river-type spillway and built to prevent flooding. The length is 6.3 km, the diameter is about 10m and the depth is about 50m. It's constructed under the Route 16 where located between Edogawa, Nakagawa and Ōotoshi Furutonegawa in Saitama prefecture.

When small and medium-sized rivers are flooded, part of the water will be drained to the Edo River through this channel. With the completion of the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel, the number of houses flooded in the surrounding area and damages have been greatly reduced.

You can also visit there to join the walking tour. Please refer to the links below for details.

・ Saitama Travel Magazine: Experience Japan’s flood control technology at the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel

・ Walking Tour Guide (Choose English)

Flood / Landslide Warning Systems and Disaster Prevention Information 

The disaster prevention information is specified by 5 levels of warnings so that the residents can easily understand intuitively the actions to be taken. The disaster prevention information is published by the local government and the Japan Meteorological Agency.

When the local government issues an evacuation advisory (warning level 4), or an evacuation preparations or evacuation of elderly people (warning level 3), take action immediately.

When evacuating, you don't have to choose to go to the pre-designated evacuation site, but you can consider evacuating to the upper floor of a sturdy building nearby, to be away from rivers and cliffs. It is important to take action according to the situation.

Evacuation Terms in Japanese

Evacuation Advisory (避難勧告 hinan-kankoku):
A recommendation to evacuate as announced by the city. This will be announced in situations where the possibility of danger to harm people is high.
Evacuation Order (避難指示 hinan-shiji):
This will be announced when the level of danger is imminent. Evacuation Order (hinan-shiji) is stronger than Evacuation Advisory (hinan-kankoku).

5-Level Warning System by Japan Meteorological Agency

Click the image to enlarge

How to Evacuate

Please refer to Taoto City's brochure and Emergency Warning System issued by JMA for details.

Hazard Maps in Tokyo

Each ward has its own Hazard Map and some of them have it in English.

The Hazard Map List  of All Wards and Cities in Tokyo (Japanese)

The Hazard Map List

Tokyo Metropolitan Government Disaster Prevention Guide Book in English

Tokyo metropolitan government disaster prevention guide book

Hazard Map Lists available in English

Minato-ku
Hazard Map1
Hazard Map2
Edogawa-ku
Hazard Map
Itabashi-ku
Emergency Guide in English
Koto-ku
Hazard Map1
Hazard Map2
Meguro-ku
Hazard Map
Shinjuku-ku
Being Ready for a Flood in Urban Areas
Suginami-ku
Hazard Map
Sumida-ku
Hazard Map Brochure
Hazard Map1
Hazard Map2
Taito-ku
Hazard Map1
Hazard Map2

Other Useful Links Related to Natural Disasters in Japan

・Useful Free Apps and Websites to Protect You from Natural Disasters in Japan​

  • Japan and Earthquakes: Why They Happen and How They are Measured

    Explore the relationship between Japan and earthquakes, including what makes them happen, how they are measured, and how Japan adapts in the face of this disaster today. JMA seismic intensity scale is used in Japan, tremors are measured on a 10-step scale of 0 through 7.
  • Emergency Free Wi-Fi Service 00000JAPAN

    In the event of a disaster, there is a Free Wi-Fi Connection called 00000JAPAN (Five Zero Japan). As it is open for everyone to use there are a few things you need to know about securing your information when using it.
  • For Emergency - Methods for Contacting Family Members

    After the earthquake in March 11th, both mobile phones and landlines were unable to connect for a while in Tokyo leading many to worry about the safety of their loved ones. The following information will show you ways to communicate in case of emergencies. We would advise that you to decide beforehand on the communication method to prioritize amongst your family members in the event of an emergency.
  • What to do in Case of an Earthquake: Safety and Evacuation

    What should you do in the event of an earthquake in Tokyo? Be Prepared! From indoor and outdoor safety to evacuation sites and English-language radio stations, we can help. We also list of Evacuation Maps by Ward in Central Tokyo.
  • Useful Free Apps and Websites to Protect You from Natural Disasters in Japan​

    There are several Apps and Websites in Japan that provide information about natural disasters in English. Here are some of the must-have Apps and informative websites to help you stay prepared in the event of a natural disaster.
  • Earthquake App Options: 6 Smart Choices for your Smartphone

    Stay up-to-date on earthquakes that might be coming by using an earthquake app. Whether you're a Japan expat or you simply want to keep safe, try these 6 options.